. . . and some principles . . .
Merriam Webster: (a): the practical application of knowledge especially in a particular area; (b): a capability given by the practical application of knowledge
OED: The application of scientific knowledge for practical purposes, especially in industry. 2) Machinery and devices developed from scientific knowledge.
Emmanuel Mesthene: the organization of knowledge for the achievement of practical purposes.”
Thomas Hughes: Technology is the effort to organize the world for problem solving so that goods and services can be invented, developed, produced, and used.
Peter Thiel: Any new and better way of doing things is technology.
James Beniger: Any intentional extension of a natural process, that is, of the processing of matter, energy, and information that characterizes all living systems (e.g., respiration vs snorkeling vs scuba).
Bernard Stiegler: “the pursuit of life by means other than life,” and “organized inorganic matter.”
Melvin Kranzberg’s six laws of technology:
- Technology is neither good nor bad; nor is it neutral.
- Invention is the mother of necessity.
- Technology comes in packages, big and small.
- Although technology might be a prime element in many public issues, nontechnical factors take precedence in technology-policy decisions.
- All history is relevant, but the history of technology is the most relevant.
- Technology is a very human activity – and so is the history of technology.