. . . and some principles . . .

Merriam Webster: (a): the practical application of knowledge especially in a particular area; (b): a capability given by the practical application of knowledge

OED: The application of scientific knowledge for practical purposes, especially in industry. 2)  Machinery and devices developed from scientific knowledge.

Emmanuel Mesthene: the organization of knowledge for the achievement of practical purposes.”

Thomas Hughes: Technology is the effort to organize the world for problem solving so that goods and services can be invented, developed, produced, and used.

Peter Thiel: Any new and better way of doing things is technology.

James Beniger: Any intentional extension of a natural process, that is, of the processing of matter, energy, and information that characterizes all living systems (e.g., respiration vs snorkeling vs scuba).

Bernard Stiegler: “the pursuit of life by means other than life,” and “organized inorganic matter.”

Melvin Kranzberg’s six laws of technology:

  1. Technology is neither good nor bad; nor is it neutral.
  2. Invention is the mother of necessity.
  3. Technology comes in packages, big and small.
  4. Although technology might be a prime element in many public issues, nontechnical factors take precedence in technology-policy decisions.
  5. All history is relevant, but the history of technology is the most relevant.
  6. Technology is a very human activity – and so is the history of technology.[1]


Some quoted social observers